Early Makuria Research Project: Zuma (Sudan)
Dates of work: 15 January–17 February 2011
Director: Mahmoud El-Tayeb (PCMA, University of Warsaw)
NCAM representative: Mrs. Neamat Mohamed El-Hassan (Inspector of antiquities)
Archaeologists: Ewa Czyżewska (PCMA, University of Warsaw), Katarzyna Juszczyk (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University, Kraków)
Archaeologist-ceramologist: Edyta Klimaszewska-Drabot (independent)
The fourth season of work at the site of el-Zuma in Sudan was dedicated to the exploration of three different tumuli: middle-sized tumuli of Type II, L-shaped and U-shaped (T.9 and T.16, respectively), and the smallest size tumulus with rectangular vertical shaft and one side burial chamber representing type III (T.20). A test trench dug on the southern edge the biggest tumulus of type I (T.7) explored evidence for an external shaft, which turned out to lead to an underground tunnel reaching one of the burial chambers of the tomb.