Early Makuria (Sudan), 2016


Dates of work: 10 January–26 February 2017

Director: Assist. Prof. Mahmoud El-Tayeb, archaeologist (PCMA UW)
NCAM representative: Neamat Mohamed El-Hassan
Archaeologists: Ewa Skowrońska, Anna Jaklewicz, Zofia Kowarska, Łukasz Zielinski (all independent)
Archaeologist/surveyor: Magdalena Antos (independent)
Archaeologist/documentalist: Julia Górecka (independent)
Archaeozoologist: Dr. Urszula Iwaszczuk (PCMA UW)
Ceramologist: Ewa Czyżewska-Zalewska (PCMA UW)
Photographers: Adam Kamrowski (Archaeological Museum in Gdańsk), Tomasz Wojtczak (freelance)
Physical anthropology student: Magdalena Srienc (Institute of Archaeology, UW)

During the tenth season of excavations at el-Zuma the mission resumed the previously postponed excavation of the last two tunnels beneath tumuli T.1 and T.4. Both tumuli were classified as Type I burials, based on their large size and unique construction. The exploration of the said two tunnels was essential as each was expected to lead directly to the main burial chamber. Although the chambers were reached, yet they were found seriously rifled. Nonetheless, new modified elements of burial niche construction were discovered. The protection of the tumuli field was also completed during the course of the season.

Recently excavated material from el-Zuma throws new light on pottery production and its typology, necessitating thus a re-examination of the already known vessel types. Some types of pottery, discovered in 2017, although known from other tumuli excavated in previous seasons and already published in general reports, still need to be re-examined. New types of vessels have also been identified.

The Early Makuria Project is a joint research program of the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology of the University of Warsaw and the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums. The project is sponsored by the Qatar–Sudan Archaeological Project and by PCMA UW.

Text: Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 26/1


Mahmoud el-Tayeb: mahmoudeltayeb@uw.edu.pl