Tell El-Farkha (Ghazala)
Dates of work: 20 February–22 March 2016
Co-Directors: Dr. Marek Chłodnicki, archaeologist (Archaeological Museum in Poznań), Prof. Krzysztof M. Ciałowicz, archaeologist (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków)
SCA representatives: Ahmed Hosni Ezzat Mohamed, Latifa Mohammed Elsayed
Archaeologist: Bartosz Adamski, Marcin Czarnowicz, Alicja Jurkiewicz, Jacek Karmowski, Dr. Piotr Kołodziejczyk, Jakub Skłucki (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków) and Krzysztof Stawarz (freelance)
Ceramologists: Magdalena Kazimierczak, Magdalena Sobas (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków), and Dr. Agnieszka Mączynska (Archaeological Museum in Poznań)
Archaeozoologist: Dr. Renata Abłamowicz (Silesian Museum, Katowice)
Archaeobotanist: Agata Bebel (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków)
Anthropologist: Prof. Anita Szczepanek (Chair of Anatomy Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University in Kraków)
Geologist: Dr. Michał Wasilewski (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków)
Conservator: Małgorzata Żukowska (Archaeological Museum in Poznań)
Photographer: Robert Słaboński (freelance)
Documentalists: Daria Białobrzecka, Urszula Doros, Merita Dreshai, Marcin Gamrat, Aleksandra Węgrzynek (Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University in Kraków), Gabriela Horodeczny (Institute of Archaeology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań)
The exploration of the three mounds forming the archaeological site was continued. On the Western Kom the oldest phase of the administrative and cult complex from the Nagada IIIA1 period was investigated, uncovering several rooms of a domestic function, filled with ovens and storage vessels sunk into the floor. Excavation of one such pit revealed earlier remains associated with the so-called Nagada Residence as well as a layer of burning attesting to the conflagration that destroyed the settlement in the beginning of the Nagada IIIA1 period. It is thought that the fire corresponds to a phase of strong rivalry with Upper Egyptian power centers and is a reflection of a raid. More exploratory work was done also on a brewery located in this part of the site, uncovering successive phase of its operation. Work on the Central Kom proceeded on the southern part of the so-called Lower Egyptian residence fund under the granary which had been explored there in 2011.
In another trench, unexpectedly, burials of men, women and children were discovered, laid in simple grave pits and without any furnishings. The burials, which correspond to settlement remains of the Nagada IIIB period, are found in a zone surrounding the remains of a round structure with very thick walls; the association. Last but not least, continued exploration of the southeastern corner of the trench on the Eastern Kom revealed the remains of large rectangular units, presumably a settlement that can be dated to the turn of Dynasty 0. A large structure, which was already evident in the previous season, still cannot be identified in terms of its function. The north wall preserves two niches filled with a light-colored substance, whereas on the inside the walls form a stepped structure. The building may be dated to the Second Dynasty. Earlier layers contained burials both in simple pits and in double-chambered tombs with stone casing and brick superstructures. Grave goods included ceramic beer jars and stone vessels.
Text: Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean 26/1